This is a modest residential renovation for Alan and Amy Thein Durning and their three children. Alan is the director of Sightline Institute and author of numerous books on sustainable culture, including This Place on Earth and How Much is Enough? In other words, our clients have very sophisticated senses of "what is green."
We started with the notion that every dollar spent has an ecological consequence. We lose the "chain of custody" of any money we spend on construction quite quickly. Even if the materials we purchase are green, that money goes toward paying employees of the green material company. The employees may use their paychecks to buy organic produce at their local food co-op…or to make payments on their new SUV. There is no way to know for sure. Thus, we believe if we can reduce overall costs, we can reduce overall environmental consequences. Every decision on this project was considered with regard to both cost and environmental impact. Alan and Amy and the kids found reclaimed materials that could be used in the project, (and with help from Amy's dad) did a good portion of the actual work themselves.
Our design program was to first, add another bedroom (for a total of four bedrooms and a study) within the envelope of the existing 1,700 square foot house; second, redo the kitchen to make it more useful for a modern family; and third, increase the energy and resource efficiency of the house. We tried a number of different approaches, and using pricing information from the contractor (Bright Street Construction) at the Schematic Design stage, settled on the least expensive scheme that covered all the bases of the program.
In our final solution we created a "teenager's realm" in the basement, using the existing separate entrance into a new rec room, allowing a modicum of privacy for the oldest child. We kept the two younger kids' bedrooms on the main floor, and reserved the upper floor bedroom and study for the parents. Alan and Amy decided that they would not use the existing wood-burning fireplace often enough to justify the enormous space the chimney took up on all three floors, so we (actually, they) removed the fireplace and opened up the kitchen to south light of the dining/living room. The kitchen is very compact for the amount of storage it contains. It borrows space from the hallway. On the kitchen side the open counter allows for chopping vegetables while sitting. Kids can sit on the other side and do homework while the parents cook.
This project was very much a collaboration between owner, architect and contractor. We learned to examine our assumptions carefully. For example, we initially specified what we thought to be the most energy-efficient refrigerator available, a VestFrost. Alan later calculated that an Energy-Star rated refrigerator made by Sears was more efficient than either the SunFrost or VestFrost, in terms of energy use per cubic foot of capacity. He examined his family's use of water, and determined that a Metlund D'MAND instant hot water delivery system would not pay for itself, for his particular family.
Final costs were under $100 per square foot over the entire house, including design fees. The architect and contractor, as well as several suppliers, are members of the Northwest EcoBuilding Guild.
After our initial consultation on their Wallingford home revealed that renovation would be too expensive, Alan and Amy found an in-city home within walking distance of shops, and across the street from Coho/NOMS elementary and middle school which all three kids currently attend. Next year, oldest son Gary will walk three blocks to Ballard High. Alan notes "With my commute convenient by bicycle or bus, our commute energy consumption is virtually nil. Plus, school buses in Seattle are old and emit great clouds of particulates - school buses are among the worst emitters of fine particulate matter (the most dangerous of criterion air pollutants). And Seattle's school bus fleet is among the worst in the country. Our Metro bus fleet, in contrast, is among the least polluting, thanks to low-emissions diesel buses plus electric trolleys."
tight-lined roof run-off to onsite french drain rather than to sewer (avoids issues with combined sewer outflows)
replaced single-glazed windows with new double-glazed, low-e, argon-filled windows. Marvin wood windows were used on the main floor, and to keep costs down Milguard vinyl windows for the upper floor and basement.
added insulation at attic, basement, and wherever walls were opened up
new split heating system (94% efficient Polaris integrated hot water & fan coil unit) allowed removal of chimney
GFX waste-water heat recovery unit installed
full line job site recycling
recycling bins in kitchen
50% fly ash in foundation concrete
reclaimed cabinet in basement bath; existing kitchen cabinets reused in workshop
several reclaimed doors, reclaimed sink, reused stove, etc.
reclaimed fir used for kitchen cabinet stiles and rails and fir portions of countertops
all framing lumber was FSC-certified
a heathier life
95% efficient near-HEPA-quality bag filter on return air
low toxic materials and finishes throughout
constraints and difficulties
cost influenced choices to exclude some green items we all would have liked, such as FSC-certified plywood for cabinets, and polished concrete slab with recycled glass aggregate in the basement
while owners' participation in the work did keep costs down, it also slowed the construction process
FSC-certified fir veneer was not available for cabinet plywood door panels
fly ash in new basement slab was nixed because concrete subcontractor imagined there would be a problem with flaking
enough quality reclaimed fir flooring was not available in time, so new fir made up balance
OS Wax floor finish specified was not applied because existing fir floor in bedrooms had been sanded too thin by previous owners, exposing tongues, necessitating use of low-toxic polyurethane to fill gaps.
We could have done better if we had participated more fully in the construction process. We limited our construction administration hours to reduce our fee, and a few things slipped by.
Owners:Alan and Amy Thein Durning RHA Project Team:Rob Harrison AIA, Chuck Johnson Assoc. AIA, Jonas Weber General Contractor:Marty Josund, Bright Street Construction Structural Engineering:Diana Leonard, Swenson Say Faget Suppliers:Environmental Home Center, Second Use Building Materials, ReStore Seattle